Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) can be identified as protein kinases that require a separate cyclin subunit, which provides domains for enzymatic activity. CDKs play a major role in modulating transcription and controlling cell division.
Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins are identified as epigenetic readers and can be characterized by the presence of two tandem bromodomains (BD1 and BD2), extraterminal domain (ET), and a C-terminal domain (CTD).
Niemann–Pick type C (NPC) disease is a rare progressive genetic disorder, characterized by the inability of the body to transport lipids and cholesterol inside the cells.
NF-κB is identified as a family of highly conserved transcription factors, which are responsible for many cellular functions such as regulation of inflammatory responses, apoptosis, cellular growth, and others.
LSD refers to inherited metabolic disorders, which are characterized by enzyme deficiencies. Metachromatic leukodystrophy; Mucolipidosis types I, II/III, and IV; Mucopolysaccharide storage disease; Gaucher disease; Fabry disease; Niemann-Pick disease; Schindler disease types I and II; Tay Sachs disease; Pompe disease; and Sandhoff disease are some of the most common types of LSD.
Rise in level of cholesterol is referred as hyperlipidemia, which can be acquired or genetically inherited. There are two types of hyperlipidemia: hypertriglyceridemia (high blood level of triglycerides), and hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol levels).
Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious condition that occurs due to diabetes. It can be defined as ulceration in foot along with neuropathy or peripheral artery disease of the lower limb in diabetic patients.
Mitochondria (singular: mitochondrion) are cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotic cells, such as plants, animals, fungi, and protists. The number of mitochondria present in a eukaryotic cell depend on the metabolic requirements of that cell; and ranges from a single large mitochondrion to thousands of the organelles.
Wnt or β-Catenin signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of pluripotent cells and embryonic development. The pathway regulates cell-to-cell interaction, activates blastocyst, accelerates trophoblast development, accelerate chorion-allantois fusion and implantation.
Galectins belong to the family of animal lectins and perform function by interacting with cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, cell-surface and extracellular matrix glycoproteins and glycolipids to modulate signalling pathways.
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are a group of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a major role in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. In most of the cancer, EGFR are amplified and overexpressed, due to dysregulation, resulting in cancer development.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are ubiquitous regulators of many cellular functions including cell proliferation, cellular growth, inflammatory responses to stress signals and cell differentiation.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is secreted by human pancreatic stellate cells and present predominantly on cancer cells. Thus, HGF inhibitors has emerged as an effective therapy in preventing local tumor growth.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a molecule type that silences the gene and limits the transcription of the mutated gene. Gene silencing is a novel mechanism that inactivates the transcripts of mutated gene, by activating sequence specific RNA degradation process.
Rho kinase inhibitor, also known as ROCK inhibitor, inhibits the rho kinases, a family of small GTP-binding protein. Rho kinases are found to regulate cell motility, proliferation, shape, gene expression, apoptosis, and are also involved in the signalling pathway.
p53 is the tumor suppressor transcription factor that activates to various stimulus, including uncontrolled cell proliferation, oncogene over-expression, and DNA damage. p53 antigen modulators helps in preventing cancer development through regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.
Cyclophilin befits in the group of protein that shows peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, found in all types of cells. In humans, 16 cyclophilins have been identified till date. Cyclophilin A, a member of cyclophilin group, mediate the action of immunosuppressive drugs.
Cell cycle inhibitors include cyclin inhibitors and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which plays major role in developing new class of anti-cancer therapies. Also, cell cycle inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy, overcome drug resistance and improve cytotoxic efficacy. CDKs are rational targets for cancer treatment, that could restore cell-cycle checkpoints and may induce apoptosis.
Aurora kinase are proteins that function as mitotic regulators and are aberrantly expressed in cancerous cells. Aurora kinase inhibitors target these aberrantly expressed regulators, provides genetic stability and prevents tumorigenesis.
Angiopoietin (ANG) receptor plays a crucial role in regulation of vascular permeability and pathological vascular remodelling during tumour angiogenesis, metastasis and inflammation. Thus, it has emerged as a new clinical approach for the development of therapeutics which treat cancer and ophthalmological diseases.
Adenosine 5-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Dysregulation of AMPK can result in many diseases which includes obesity and type 2 diabetes. Several studies have also suggested that AMPK are also associated with the development of neurological diseases and cancer.
Akt, also known as PKB, is generally activated in several types of cancers such as breast, gastric, lung, ovary, and pancreatic cancer. Akt inhibitor prevent the functioning of activated form of Akt kinases. Akt kinases are also involved in promoting growth factor-mediated cells that mediates cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis through the inactivation of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death.
Lipodystrophy is a rare medical condition which involves problems with fat production, usage, and storage. It is categorized into two types; congenital and acquired lipodystrophy.
Growth hormone deficiency is a congenital or acquired hormonal disorder, that is characterized by short stature due to lack of growth hormone.