NF-κB is identified as a family of highly conserved transcription factors, which are responsible for many cellular functions such as regulation of inflammatory responses, apoptosis, cellular growth, and others.
Wnt or β-Catenin signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of pluripotent cells and embryonic development. The pathway regulates cell-to-cell interaction, activates blastocyst, accelerates trophoblast development, accelerate chorion-allantois fusion and implantation.
Galectins belong to the family of animal lectins and perform function by interacting with cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, cell-surface and extracellular matrix glycoproteins and glycolipids to modulate signalling pathways.
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are a group of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a major role in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. In most of the cancer, EGFR are amplified and overexpressed, due to dysregulation, resulting in cancer development.
Endothelin antagonists are drug candidates that acts against endothelin receptors and generate pharmacological actions such as blocking the vasoconstriction and mediate vasodilatation. Endothelin-1 is a peptide which is comprised of 21 amino acids and formed by vascular endothelium.
Interleukin receptors are a group of cytokine receptors that are expressed by leukocytes. Interleukin receptors play an important role in the functioning of the immune system.
Interleukin 8 is a chemokine produced by various immune cells. They promote angiogenesis, proliferation and development of cancerous cells. The other diseases which are associated with interleukin 8 are depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, psoriasis, eczema and others.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) is an attractive target for the treatment of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Many GSK-3β inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of different central nervous system disorders.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a molecule type that silences the gene and limits the transcription of the mutated gene. Gene silencing is a novel mechanism that inactivates the transcripts of mutated gene, by activating sequence specific RNA degradation process.
Rho kinase inhibitor, also known as ROCK inhibitor, inhibits the rho kinases, a family of small GTP-binding protein. Rho kinases are found to regulate cell motility, proliferation, shape, gene expression, apoptosis, and are also involved in the signalling pathway.
Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitors are the drug candidates that target the sodium channels Nav1.7 and have been significant in pain management. The sodium channels Nav1.7 receptors are generally found in two types of neurons: nociceptive pain neurons, such as trigeminal neurons and dorsal root ganglion; and sympathetic ganglion neurons which form a part of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. These receptors play an important role in generation and conduction of action potential.
Cell cycle inhibitors include cyclin inhibitors and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which plays major role in developing new class of anti-cancer therapies. Also, cell cycle inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy, overcome drug resistance and improve cytotoxic efficacy. CDKs are rational targets for cancer treatment, that could restore cell-cycle checkpoints and may induce apoptosis.
Angiopoietin (ANG) receptor plays a crucial role in regulation of vascular permeability and pathological vascular remodelling during tumour angiogenesis, metastasis and inflammation. Thus, it has emerged as a new clinical approach for the development of therapeutics which treat cancer and ophthalmological diseases.
Androgens are responsible for the development of male characteristics by binding to androgen receptors. Androgen receptor plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Thus, it has been an attractive target for the clinical interventions and treatment of prostate cancer.
Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is abundantly found in the brain. The minimal amount of alpha-synuclein is also found in the heart and other tissues. The protein is prominently found at the tips of the nerve cells. It helps in the maintaining supply of the synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals. In addition, the alpha-synuclein protein also helps in release of dopamine.
Akt, also known as PKB, is generally activated in several types of cancers such as breast, gastric, lung, ovary, and pancreatic cancer. Akt inhibitor prevent the functioning of activated form of Akt kinases. Akt kinases are also involved in promoting growth factor-mediated cells that mediates cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis through the inactivation of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death.
Ventricular arrhythmia is a cardiovascular disease that is characterized by slow beats (bradycardia) and fast beats (tachycardia). Ventricular arrhythmia generally occurs in the lower chamber of the heart.
Telangiectasias are dilated blood vessels located near the surface of skin or mucous membranes. These often appear as fine pink or red lines, which temporarily whiten under pressure. Although this disease can be developed in healthy individuals, telangiectasias is known to be a prime feature of systemic and limited scleroderma and dermatomyositis.
Left ventricular dysfunction is a condition which is characterized by dilation and vasoconstriction of left ventricle, which eventually lead to heart failure. Some common symptoms observed in this disease are insomnia, fatigue, and anxious or depressed mood.
Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a type of dilated cardiomyopathy, in which the capability of heart to pump blood is reduced. This causes lack of blood supply to heart muscles which result in the occurrence of coronary artery disease.
Hypotension refers to a low blood pressure condition, which can result in dizziness, fainting or shock. There are several types of hypotension including orthostatic, neutrally mediated, and severe hypotension that are linked to shock.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, also known as an unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, can lead to the sudden cardiac death. Some of the symptoms observed in patients suffering from this disease are chest pain, shortness of breath, orthostasis, palpitation, syncope, and presyncope. This disease can be diagnosed by imaging techniques, such as echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging.
Essential hypertension, also known as idiopathic hypertension, is a kind of high blood pressure for which a secondary cause is not known. It is also known as primary hypertension and can eventually lead to atherosclerosis, stroke, heart attack, heart failure, eye and kidney damage.
Dilated cardiomyopathy is a type of cardiovascular disease, that is characterized by left systolic dysfunction and ventricular enlargement. This condition is found to be associated with cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, and thromboembolic disease.
Behcet Disease (Behçet disease) is an inflammatory disorder that affects blood vessels of various body parts including mouth, genitals, skin, and eyes. Some of the symptoms of this disease are mouth sores, skin sores, genital sores, uveitis, joint swelling, abdominal pain, headache, and fever.