T-cell immunotherapy comprises T-cell receptor (TCR), tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL), and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. TCR is an integral membrane protein that initiates T-cells response to an antigen.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease that leads to inflammation of cartilage and blood vessels. Some common symptoms of the disease include pain and swelling in joints, unexplained fever, sensitivity to sun, joints and muscle pain, swollen glands, and mouth ulcers.
NF-κB is identified as a family of highly conserved transcription factors, which are responsible for many cellular functions such as regulation of inflammatory responses, apoptosis, cellular growth, and others.
IL-6 is transcribed by IL-6 gene that encodes a cytokine, which functions in inflammation and maturation of B cells. The IL-6 protein can induce fever in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases, thereby acting as endogenous pyrogens.
JAK consists of four intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinases that help in cytokine mediated signaling through the JAK-STAT pathway. It contains two almost identical phosphate transferring domains in which one domain shows kinase activity and the other regulates the activity of the first via negative inhibition.
Mitochondria (singular: mitochondrion) are cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotic cells, such as plants, animals, fungi, and protists. The number of mitochondria present in a eukaryotic cell depend on the metabolic requirements of that cell; and ranges from a single large mitochondrion to thousands of the organelles.
Wnt or β-Catenin signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of pluripotent cells and embryonic development. The pathway regulates cell-to-cell interaction, activates blastocyst, accelerates trophoblast development, accelerate chorion-allantois fusion and implantation.
Galectins belong to the family of animal lectins and perform function by interacting with cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, cell-surface and extracellular matrix glycoproteins and glycolipids to modulate signalling pathways.
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are a group of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a major role in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. In most of the cancer, EGFR are amplified and overexpressed, due to dysregulation, resulting in cancer development.
Endothelin antagonists are drug candidates that acts against endothelin receptors and generate pharmacological actions such as blocking the vasoconstriction and mediate vasodilatation. Endothelin-1 is a peptide which is comprised of 21 amino acids and formed by vascular endothelium.
MDM2 protein are powerful oncogene which is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast cancer and sarcoma. There are many small molecule drug candidates that are being developed as MDM2 protein inhibitors as monotherapy or combination therapy for the treatment of various cancers.
Interleukin receptors are a group of cytokine receptors that are expressed by leukocytes. Interleukin receptors play an important role in the functioning of the immune system.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is secreted by human pancreatic stellate cells and present predominantly on cancer cells. Thus, HGF inhibitors has emerged as an effective therapy in preventing local tumor growth.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) is an attractive target for the treatment of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Many GSK-3β inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of different central nervous system disorders.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a protein that belongs to the family of tyrosine kinases with an ability to initiate the inflammatory responses, by connecting immune cell receptors to intracellular signaling pathways.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a molecule type that silences the gene and limits the transcription of the mutated gene. Gene silencing is a novel mechanism that inactivates the transcripts of mutated gene, by activating sequence specific RNA degradation process.
p53 is the tumor suppressor transcription factor that activates to various stimulus, including uncontrolled cell proliferation, oncogene over-expression, and DNA damage. p53 antigen modulators helps in preventing cancer development through regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.
Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitors are the drug candidates that target the sodium channels Nav1.7 and have been significant in pain management. The sodium channels Nav1.7 receptors are generally found in two types of neurons: nociceptive pain neurons, such as trigeminal neurons and dorsal root ganglion; and sympathetic ganglion neurons which form a part of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. These receptors play an important role in generation and conduction of action potential.
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) plays important role in the T-cell regulation at an early stage of naive T-cell activation, primarily in the lymph nodes. CTLA-4 has emerged as an attractive cancer immunotherapy as a part of “immune checkpoint blockade”.
Cell cycle inhibitors include cyclin inhibitors and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which plays major role in developing new class of anti-cancer therapies. Also, cell cycle inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy, overcome drug resistance and improve cytotoxic efficacy. CDKs are rational targets for cancer treatment, that could restore cell-cycle checkpoints and may induce apoptosis.
Cathepsin K is a protease enzyme which is coded by CTSK gene. The function associated with the gene involves bone remodelling and resorption. Cathepsin K is a member of peptidase C1 protein family and expressed mainly in osteoclasts.
Aurora kinase are proteins that function as mitotic regulators and are aberrantly expressed in cancerous cells. Aurora kinase inhibitors target these aberrantly expressed regulators, provides genetic stability and prevents tumorigenesis.
Angiopoietin (ANG) receptor plays a crucial role in regulation of vascular permeability and pathological vascular remodelling during tumour angiogenesis, metastasis and inflammation. Thus, it has emerged as a new clinical approach for the development of therapeutics which treat cancer and ophthalmological diseases.
Adenosine 5-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Dysregulation of AMPK can result in many diseases which includes obesity and type 2 diabetes. Several studies have also suggested that AMPK are also associated with the development of neurological diseases and cancer.
Wegener’s granulomatosis, also known as granulomatosis with polyangiitis, is a type of an inflammatory and autoimmune disorder that limits the blood flow to organs, leading to organ damage.
Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder that affects many organs in the body, such as lymph glands and lungs. Abnormal nodules are formed in the affected organs, impacting the structure and function of the organ during sarcoidosis.
Primary immune deficiency diseases are rare and genetic disorders, that are characterized by an impaired immune system. Some of the symptoms observed in the patients with these diseases are blood disorders, autoimmune disorders, recurrent pneumonia, inflammation of internal organs, and digestive problems.
Kidney transplant rejection occurs due to an immune response toward the foreign antigens from the donor kidney. It is categorized into three different types; hyper-acute, acute, and chronic kidney transplant rejection.
Hypersensitivity is a group of undesirable reactions that are produced by normal immune systems, due to allergies and autoimmune disorders in body. These are considered as an over-reaction by the immune system and can be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally incurable.
Heart transplantation is the most feasible surgical transplant for the patients with end-stage heart disease. In a heart transplant surgery damaged or diseased heart is replaced with a healthy one. Transplant rejection is very common due to T cell response toward the graft or new heart.
Guillain-barre syndrome (GBS) is an immunological disorder in which the body’s immune system acts against the peripheral nervous system. In this condition, the body’s immunity starts to destroy the myelin sheath that surrounds the axons of peripheral nerves.
Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder, characterized by autoantibodies, elevated immunoglobulin, and peritoneal inflammation. According to researchers, environmental triggers, genetic predisposition, and autoimmunity are some causes for the occurrence of this disease.
Allergy is an immune system response, that can range from mild to severe life-threatening reactions. The substances that can cause an allergy are known as allergens. Some common allergens include pollen, dust, insect stings, medications, mold spores, latex, and animal dander.