Androgenetic alopecia is a genetic medical condition, which leads to pattern hair loss in both male and female. A pattern of “M” shaped is commonly seen in patients, followed by thinning of hair over the crown.
Hyperhidrosis is a condition in which a person starts sweating excessively. People suffering from hyperhidrosis experience excessive sweating from their palms, heads, feet, or underarms.
IL-6 is transcribed by IL-6 gene that encodes a cytokine, which functions in inflammation and maturation of B cells. The IL-6 protein can induce fever in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases, thereby acting as endogenous pyrogens.
Hypertrophic scar can be identified as a thickened and raised scar that develops at the site where skin is injured. A hypertrophic scar is a result of an abnormal response to a trauma or injury.
JAK consists of four intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinases that help in cytokine mediated signaling through the JAK-STAT pathway. It contains two almost identical phosphate transferring domains in which one domain shows kinase activity and the other regulates the activity of the first via negative inhibition.
Galectins belong to the family of animal lectins and perform function by interacting with cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, cell-surface and extracellular matrix glycoproteins and glycolipids to modulate signalling pathways.
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are a group of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a major role in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. In most of the cancer, EGFR are amplified and overexpressed, due to dysregulation, resulting in cancer development.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are ubiquitous regulators of many cellular functions including cell proliferation, cellular growth, inflammatory responses to stress signals and cell differentiation.
Interleukin receptors are a group of cytokine receptors that are expressed by leukocytes. Interleukin receptors play an important role in the functioning of the immune system.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is secreted by human pancreatic stellate cells and present predominantly on cancer cells. Thus, HGF inhibitors has emerged as an effective therapy in preventing local tumor growth.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a protein that belongs to the family of tyrosine kinases with an ability to initiate the inflammatory responses, by connecting immune cell receptors to intracellular signaling pathways.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a molecule type that silences the gene and limits the transcription of the mutated gene. Gene silencing is a novel mechanism that inactivates the transcripts of mutated gene, by activating sequence specific RNA degradation process.
p53 is the tumor suppressor transcription factor that activates to various stimulus, including uncontrolled cell proliferation, oncogene over-expression, and DNA damage. p53 antigen modulators helps in preventing cancer development through regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) plays important role in the T-cell regulation at an early stage of naive T-cell activation, primarily in the lymph nodes. CTLA-4 has emerged as an attractive cancer immunotherapy as a part of “immune checkpoint blockade”.
Cell cycle inhibitors include cyclin inhibitors and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which plays major role in developing new class of anti-cancer therapies. Also, cell cycle inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy, overcome drug resistance and improve cytotoxic efficacy. CDKs are rational targets for cancer treatment, that could restore cell-cycle checkpoints and may induce apoptosis.
Aurora kinase are proteins that function as mitotic regulators and are aberrantly expressed in cancerous cells. Aurora kinase inhibitors target these aberrantly expressed regulators, provides genetic stability and prevents tumorigenesis.
Angiopoietin (ANG) receptor plays a crucial role in regulation of vascular permeability and pathological vascular remodelling during tumour angiogenesis, metastasis and inflammation. Thus, it has emerged as a new clinical approach for the development of therapeutics which treat cancer and ophthalmological diseases.
Androgens are responsible for the development of male characteristics by binding to androgen receptors. Androgen receptor plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Thus, it has been an attractive target for the clinical interventions and treatment of prostate cancer.
Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is abundantly found in the brain. The minimal amount of alpha-synuclein is also found in the heart and other tissues. The protein is prominently found at the tips of the nerve cells. It helps in the maintaining supply of the synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals. In addition, the alpha-synuclein protein also helps in release of dopamine.
Vitiligo is a type of autoimmune disorder which is characterized by white patches on skin. This is mainly due to destruction of melanocytes (cells responsible for pigmentation in the skin). People with certain autoimmune diseases are more prone to developing vitiligo. Some of the most common symptoms of the disease are occurrence of white patches on the hands, feet, arms, and lips.
Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are defined as open lesions between the knee and ankle joint. It is the most common cause of leg ulcers, accounting for 60-80% of the total reported cases. The prevalence of VLUs is between 0.18% and 1%, which increases with age and can increased to 4% in patients aged 65 or above.
Prurigo is a group of skin diseases characterised by intensely pruritic, and difficult to treat. There are two conditions associated with prurigo which includes nodular prurigo and papular prurigo. Nodular prurigo is characterized by symmetrical lesions usually on the distal limbs; while, papular prurigo represents smaller lesions which affect cape area.
Keratitis is an inflammatory eye disorder which affects cornea. It is mainly caused by virus, bacteria, amoebic, and parasitic pathogens. Red eye, pain, excessive tearing, impaired eyesight, and photophobia are some of the symptoms associated with the disease. Keratitis is categorised into two types: acute keratitis and chronic keratitis.
A keloid is characterized by abnormal proliferation of scar tissue which occurs at the site of cutaneous injuries. Acne scars, burns, scratches, ear piercing, chickenpox scars, surgical incision sites and vaccination sites are some of the major causes of keloids.
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a dermatological disorder which develops pimples, folliculitis, boils and deep-acne like cysts and blackheads. The pimples grow deeply in the skin and becomes painful in severe cases. Smoking and obesity are the most common risk factors of hidradenitis suppurativa. It is more prevalent in women compared to men. Hidradenitis suppurativa generally occurs in areas like underarms, groin, buttocks, upper thighs and breasts.
Dermatomyositis is a rare inflammatory disease which can occur in any age. However, it is most common in children age group of 5 to 15 years, and people of late 40's and early 60's. Some of the most common symptoms observed in patients with dermatomyositis are erythema, inflammatory myopathy, myalgia, progressive muscle weakness, eyelid abnormality, and periorbital edema.
Dermatomycoses is a group of disease which is caused by dermatophytes, a fungus, which generally invade into keratinized tissues such as nails, skin and hairs. The causative agents for dermatomycoses include organisms of three genera, Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Deuteromycetes. Dermatomycoses is a contagious disease that can be acquired from infected animals.
Aging is a process of becoming older, that brings physical, social and psychological changes to the body. In addition, aging is one of the major risk factors for the occurrence of many diseases. The cause of aging is still unknown; however, some proposed theories such as damage accumulation and programmed aging, are heading the hypothetical process of aging.
Actinic keratosis is a type of dermatological disorder characterized by thick and scaly patch of skin, that can lead to cancer. This disease generally occurs at the areas that are exposed to the sun and is common in people with fair skin.