Mitochondria generate adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation, and also plays a key role in apoptosis. Mitochondrial therapeutic development is focused on diseases, which are caused by mutations in mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or in nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease that causes inflammation of cartilage and blood vessels. Pain and swelling in joints, sensitivity to sun, unexplained fever, joints and muscle pain, mouth ulcers, swollen glands, and others are some common symptoms of the disease.
T-cell immunotherapy consists of T-cell receptor (TCR), tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL), and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. TCR is an integral membrane protein that is activated by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the presence of an antigen.
UTI is an infection caused in any part of the urinary tract including urethra, ureter, bladder, and kidney. This may happen due to the invasion of bacteria causing infection, which spreads from large intestine to anus.
ALD is a X-linked genetic disease which falls under the family of leukodystrophies disorder. The disease is monogenetically inherited from parents to offspring, with 100% penetrance in men and 65% in heterozygous women.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an infection caused by Staphylococcus staph) bacteria, which are resistant to several antibiotics. The staph bacteria are naturally present in nose and on skin, but do not cause any harm.
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine and threonine protein kinase that is considered as a target for immunosuppressive drug rapamycin and is present in two distinct complexes.
Niemann-Pick disease is divided into four main types: type A, type B, type C1, and type C2. These types are classified on the basis of genetic cause and signs and symptoms of the disease.
HPV is a group of more than 200 related viruses, which spreads mostly through anal, oral, and vaginal sex. The sexually transmitted HPV infections are categorized into two groups: low-grade, and high-grade HPVs.
AKI or acute kidney failure is a common medical condition reported among hospitalized patients, especially those with multiple comorbid conditions. AKI can occur due to various reasons including decreased renal perfusion, and obstruction of the urinary collecting system.
Psoriasis is identified as a condition which causes chronic inflammation and scaling on skin. It develops when skin cells grow rapidly below the surface of the skin and get deposited on the surface before they get matured.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of hereditary disorders that lead to the breakdown and loss of cells in the retina. Mutation in genes encoding the proteins required by retinal cells for their proper functioning, results in occurrence of RP.
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a type of cancer that usually affects children. Soft tissues or hollow organs such as bladder or uterus are often affected by this disease. There are mainly two types of RMS: embryonal RMS (ERMS) and alveolar RMS (ARMS).
Synovial sarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma, which is divided into four stages (I, II, III, and IV) depending on the size of tumor. The growth of the tumor tends to cause numbness and pain in joints when it presses against nerves.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease that affects colon or large intestine and results in inflammation of the colon and development of ulcers on intestinal linings. The disease is a result of improper functioning of immune system.
Pancreatic cancer occurs due to the formation of malignant cells in the pancreas which eventually leads to the development of tumors. Tumors are further classified into exocrine tumor and endocrine tumor.
Pancreatic cancer is identified as the formation of tumor due to development of malignant cells in the pancreas. There are two main forms of the disease, namely endocrine and exocrine tumors.
Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited autosomal recessive genetic condition that progressively damages the nervous system, with a typical age of onset between 10 years and 15 years.
Post-operative pain is a very common problem experienced by patients who undergo surgical procedures. Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience caused by any injury, disease, or surgical procedure.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a serious condition that occurs in people who have experienced or witnessed a life-threatening event, such as a natural disaster, serious accident, terrorist incident, sudden death of a loved one, war, rape, or other violent personal assault.
Prostatitis refers to a group of disorders that lead to inflammatory condition causing pain in prostate gland. The disease is categorized into four forms: chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, and asymptomatic prostatitis.
Proteasomes are small, barrel-formed structures found in cells having a function of degrading the misfolded and non-useful proteins inside the cells. Proteasome inhibitors focus on proteasomes in the disease cells and hinder their action by binding to them.
Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a genetic disorder that causes tumors on nerve tissues. These are usually non-cancerous, but few can be developed into cancer. The disorder becomes prominent by the age of 10–15 years.
Oral mucositis is an acute inflammation of the oral mucosa, which is a common side effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The inflammation leads to the formation of ulcers and infections in mouth.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder that primarily affects kidneys. It causes fluid-filled cysts to grow inside the kidneys, which increase the size and damage tissues of the kidneys.
Pancreatic cancer occurs when malignant cells develop in the part of pancreas, resulting in the formation of a tumor. Pancreatic cancer typically spreads rapidly to nearby organs. It is rarely detected in its early stages.
Pancreatic cancer is defined as the development of tumor and uncontrolled growth of cells in the pancreas. There are mainly two different types of pancreatic cancer: exocrine and endocrine, depending upon the part of pancreas affected.
PSP is identified as a rare brain disorder, which affects the control of eye movement and walking. Individuals with PSP also face difficulty in swallowing, speaking, and controlling other voluntary movements.
Androgenetic alopecia is a genetic disorder of patterned hair loss that affects both men and women. The disorder shortens hair growth cycle due to excess of androgen, which eventually delays hair growth.
Constipation is one of the most common medical condition, characterized by irregular bowel movement. Pain in passing stool, lumpy and hard stool, and feeling of incomplete emptying are some of the most common symptoms of constipation.
Hemochromatosis, also known as iron overload, is identified as increased level of iron in the body. It has symptoms such as joint pain, weight loss, erectile dysfunction in men, and irregular menstrual cycle in women.
Presbyopia is an age-related eye disorder, which affects the near sight vision. Primary cause of the disease is loss of flexibility of eye lenses present in cornea. Due to this, patients face difficulty in day-to-day activities like reading, blurred vision, headaches, and eyestrain.
Graves’ ophthalmopathy is identified as an autoimmune disease in which the overproduction of thyroid hormones affects ocular and orbital tissues. According to the research studies, this disease is associated with elevated TSH receptor expression in the tissues of the orbit, with increase in the level of TSH receptor antibodies.
Hyperhidrosis refers to excessive sweating from some body parts, including palms, heads, feet, or underarms. It is mainly categorized into two types: primary hyperhidrosis and secondary hyperhidrosis.
Hyperlipidemia is unsuitable increase of cholesterol in blood, which can be inherited or acquired. Hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia are the two types of hyperlipidemia.
Hypertrophic scar can be defined as a thickened and raised scar that forms at the site where skin is damaged. A hypertrophic scar is an after effect to an injury.
IL-6 is a cytokine encoded by IL-6 gene, which helps in the maturation of B cells and is actively involved in the inflammatory response. The IL-6 protein is primarily produced at the sites of acute and chronic inflammation, where it is secreted into the serum and brings a transcriptional inflammatory response through IL-6α receptor.
JE is a viral infection caused by the bite of Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito. The prevention from the mosquito bites is the key preventive measure for the disease.
LSD refers to a group of genetically inherited disorders, which are characterized by enzyme deficiencies. It results in accumulation of toxic chemical substances in the body’s cells.
MG is a neuromuscular disorder, which weakens muscles by decreasing number of acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. The disease becomes prominent during adulthood; but symptoms can be observed at any age.
MF is an uncommon ailment described by the presence of excessive scar tissues in bone marrow that diminishes its hematopoietic potential. MF is the causes of a genetic mutation in the blood stem cells.
NF-κB is a family of transcription factors, aiding many regulatory cellular functions such as regulation of apoptosis, inflammatory responses, cellular growth, and others.
Uveitis refers to a group of disorders that lead to inflammation in eyes and damages their tissues. The disease not only affects uvea, which is the middle layer of the eye, but also affects retina, vitreous humor, optic nerve, and iris.
BPH can be identified as enlargement of prostate gland, a condition affects majority of male population. It is non-cancerous and goes through two main growth periods as a man age.
Bronchiectasis, a chronic airways infection, affects lungs and widens bronchial trees. This leads to gradual loss of mucus clearing ability, which increases growth of bacteria.
JAK comprises four receptors JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) which help in cytokine mediated signaling through the JAK/STAT pathway. There are two nearly identical phosphate transferring domains present in JAKs.
RLS is a neurological sleep disorder that causes intense and irresistible urge to move leg. It can occur due to medical problems such as Parkinson’s disease, peripheral neuropathy, diabetes, and iron deficiency, or genetically.
LGS is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that mostly affects individuals during infancy or early childhood. This syndrome has the tendency to develop between the age of one to eight years in children, and can be characterized by polymorphic seizures and neuropsychological decline.
Rhinovirus infections, caused by rhinoviruses, occurs in the upper or lower respiratory tracts. The occurrence frequency of the infection is a year-around, but most often in spring and fall seasons. The infections are mostly acknowledged as ‘common cold’, but the infection can also lead to lesser degree pneumonia, sore throats, sinus infections, ear infections, and bronchiolitis.
IgA Nephropathy is referred to being as the utmost causing agent of Glomerulonephritis, which is the inflammation of the glomeruli (part of the kidney that filters blood). IgA antibodies are produced by immune system and act as first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogens.
Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in embryonic development. The signaling pathway regulates cell-to-cell interaction, accelerates trophoblast development, activates blastocyst, accelerate chorion-allantois fusion and implantation.
Akt plays a critical role in the regulation of cell’s apoptotic pathway and it is being studied extensively for targeting cancerous cells. Akt inhibitors are therapeutics that obstruct the Akt pathways or Akt enzyme, which play a key role in proliferation of solid tumors or cancer cells. Akt are composed of various AGC kinases present in the cells that have hydrophobic motif at the c-terminus of their catalytic core.