Constipation refers to an irregular bowel movement, which is characterized by lumpy and hard stool, pain in passing the stool, and feeling of incomplete emptying. Additional implications of constipation include hemorrhoids anal fissure, rectal prolapse, and fecal imprecation.
IL-6 is transcribed by IL-6 gene that encodes a cytokine, which functions in inflammation and maturation of B cells. The IL-6 protein can induce fever in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases, thereby acting as endogenous pyrogens.
JAK consists of four intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinases that help in cytokine mediated signaling through the JAK-STAT pathway. It contains two almost identical phosphate transferring domains in which one domain shows kinase activity and the other regulates the activity of the first via negative inhibition.
Mitochondria are the organelles found in cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. They are also known as power-house of the cell. Various mitochondrial-related diseases have been discovered, in which the pathogenesis is not understood well.
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are a group of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a major role in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. In most of the cancer, EGFR are amplified and overexpressed, due to dysregulation, resulting in cancer development.
Endothelin antagonists are drug candidates that acts against endothelin receptors and generate pharmacological actions such as blocking the vasoconstriction and mediate vasodilatation. Endothelin-1 is a peptide which is comprised of 21 amino acids and formed by vascular endothelium.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are ubiquitous regulators of many cellular functions including cell proliferation, cellular growth, inflammatory responses to stress signals and cell differentiation.
MDM2 protein are powerful oncogene which is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast cancer and sarcoma. There are many small molecule drug candidates that are being developed as MDM2 protein inhibitors as monotherapy or combination therapy for the treatment of various cancers.
Interleukin receptors are a group of cytokine receptors that are expressed by leukocytes. Interleukin receptors play an important role in the functioning of the immune system.
Interleukin 8 is a chemokine produced by various immune cells. They promote angiogenesis, proliferation and development of cancerous cells. The other diseases which are associated with interleukin 8 are depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, psoriasis, eczema and others.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) is an attractive target for the treatment of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Many GSK-3β inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of different central nervous system disorders.
p53 is the tumor suppressor transcription factor that activates to various stimulus, including uncontrolled cell proliferation, oncogene over-expression, and DNA damage. p53 antigen modulators helps in preventing cancer development through regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.
Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitors are the drug candidates that target the sodium channels Nav1.7 and have been significant in pain management. The sodium channels Nav1.7 receptors are generally found in two types of neurons: nociceptive pain neurons, such as trigeminal neurons and dorsal root ganglion; and sympathetic ganglion neurons which form a part of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. These receptors play an important role in generation and conduction of action potential.
Cyclophilin befits in the group of protein that shows peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, found in all types of cells. In humans, 16 cyclophilins have been identified till date. Cyclophilin A, a member of cyclophilin group, mediate the action of immunosuppressive drugs.
Cell cycle inhibitors include cyclin inhibitors and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which plays major role in developing new class of anti-cancer therapies. Also, cell cycle inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy, overcome drug resistance and improve cytotoxic efficacy. CDKs are rational targets for cancer treatment, that could restore cell-cycle checkpoints and may induce apoptosis.
Aurora kinase are proteins that function as mitotic regulators and are aberrantly expressed in cancerous cells. Aurora kinase inhibitors target these aberrantly expressed regulators, provides genetic stability and prevents tumorigenesis.
Adenosine 5-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Dysregulation of AMPK can result in many diseases which includes obesity and type 2 diabetes. Several studies have also suggested that AMPK are also associated with the development of neurological diseases and cancer.
Androgens are responsible for the development of male characteristics by binding to androgen receptors. Androgen receptor plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Thus, it has been an attractive target for the clinical interventions and treatment of prostate cancer.
Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is abundantly found in the brain. The minimal amount of alpha-synuclein is also found in the heart and other tissues. The protein is prominently found at the tips of the nerve cells. It helps in the maintaining supply of the synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals. In addition, the alpha-synuclein protein also helps in release of dopamine.
Proctitis is characterized by the inflamed lining tissue of the inner rectum due to several medical conditions. The common causes of proctitis are sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease), anal trauma, rectal infections, and radiation therapy for ovarian, anal, rectal, or prostate cancer.
Pouchitis is an inflammatory disorder that develops when the ileal pouch becomes inflamed and irritated. Increased bowel frequency, bloody stool, incontinence, straining during defecation, tenesmus, lower abdominal pain and abdominal cramping or bloating are some of the problems observed in pouchitis.
Postoperative ileus is defined as malfunctioning of intestinal motility after major abdominal surgeries. It generally affects large number of patients who are undergoing bowel resection surgery which causes significant discomfort and extend hospital stay. Postoperative ileus affects small intestine, stomach and large intestine. The disease is broadly categorized into primary and secondary type.
Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction occurs due to excessive consumption of opioids to manage pain. Opioid is generally use in the clinical management of pain which affects gastrointestinal tract and causes several types of side-effects. Opioid induced constipation is the most common side-effect occur due to excessive usage of opioids.
Hyperinsulinemia is a medical condition which is characterized by increased amount of insulin in blood. The primary cause of the disease is insulin resistance, which can also result in the development of type 2 diabetes. Insulinoma and nesidioblastosis are some other causes of hyperinsulinemia.
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a reversible functional renal impairment, that occurs in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis or those with fulminant hepatic failure. It is characterized by a marked reduction in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow, in the absence of other causes of renal failure.
Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by infection due to a virus known as hepatitis E virus (HEV). This disease can cause swelling in liver. Some of the common symptoms are mild fever, feeling of tiredness, feeling sick to stomach, and belly pain.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhoea, is an inflammatory disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites through contaminated food and water.
Functional dyspepsia, also known as non-ulcer dyspepsia, is a gastrointestinal disorder that causes peristalsis and sensations in the upper digestive tract. Inflammation of the stomach or duodenum, excessive acid secretion, psychological factors, lifestyle and diet influences, food allergies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and side effects of medications are some causes of functional dyspepsia.
Fecal incontinence, also known as accidental bowel leakage, refers to the inability of a person to control bowel movement including stools and mucus. Urge incontinence is a common form of fecal incontinence that occur due to pelvic muscle injury or nerve damage.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disorder, characterized by the development of adenomatous colon polyps in the intestinal tract, resulting in colon cancer. The disease is diagnosed when more than 100 adenomatous colon polyps are developed in a person.
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is the inability of pancreas to produce enough enzymes for the proper breakdown and absorption of nutrients. The common causes of EPI are damage to pancreas, inflammation of pancreas, pancreatic surgery, and inherited disorders like Crohn’s disease and celiac disease.
Diarrhoea involves loose, frequent, and watery bowel movements, caused by gastrointestinal infections, medicines, and irritable bowel syndrome. Rotaviruses are the most common viral causative agents for this
Crigler-Najjar syndrome is a severe condition, characterized by the high concentration of bilirubin (a toxic substance) in blood. Bilirubin is produced by liver due to the breakdown of red blood cells.
Biliary cirrhosis is an immune mediated chronic liver disease, in which small bile ducts are inflamed or injured, due to the building-up of bile level. If left untreated, biliary cirrhosis can lead to liver failure. In this disease, the immune system becomes overactive and attacks healthy bile ducts.
Abdominal pain is a sensation of distress or discomfort in the abdominal region. Some common related condition that can cause abdominal pain are chronic pelvic pain, constipation, gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome, diverticulitis, and menstrual pain.