Human papilloma virus (HPV) comprises more than 200 related viruses, which spreads usually through anal, oral, and vaginal sex. The sexually transmitted HPV infections are divided into two groups: low-grade and high-grade HPVs.
JE virus is one of the leading causes of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in the Western Pacific and Asia. It is characterized by inflammation in brain. Additional implications of the disease include headache, disorientation, high fever, coma, convulsions, and tremors.
Rhinovirus infections, caused by the rhinoviruses, occurs in the upper or lower respiratory tracts. These infections are mostly acknowledged as ‘common cold’; however, they can also lead to pneumonia, sore throats, sinus infections, ear infections, and bronchiolitis.
Mitochondria are the organelles found in cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. They are also known as power-house of the cell. Various mitochondrial-related diseases have been discovered, in which the pathogenesis is not understood well.
Galectins belong to the family of animal lectins and perform function by interacting with cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, cell-surface and extracellular matrix glycoproteins and glycolipids to modulate signalling pathways.
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are a group of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a major role in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. In most of the cancer, EGFR are amplified and overexpressed, due to dysregulation, resulting in cancer development.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are ubiquitous regulators of many cellular functions including cell proliferation, cellular growth, inflammatory responses to stress signals and cell differentiation.
MDM2 protein are powerful oncogene which is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast cancer and sarcoma. There are many small molecule drug candidates that are being developed as MDM2 protein inhibitors as monotherapy or combination therapy for the treatment of various cancers.
Interleukin receptors are a group of cytokine receptors that are expressed by leukocytes. Interleukin receptors play an important role in the functioning of the immune system.
Interleukin 8 is a chemokine produced by various immune cells. They promote angiogenesis, proliferation and development of cancerous cells. The other diseases which are associated with interleukin 8 are depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, psoriasis, eczema and others.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) fusion inhibitors is the new class of antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV infections. Failure of combination antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV, has increased the risk of disease progression.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is secreted by human pancreatic stellate cells and present predominantly on cancer cells. Thus, HGF inhibitors has emerged as an effective therapy in preventing local tumor growth.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) is an attractive target for the treatment of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Many GSK-3β inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of different central nervous system disorders.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a protein that belongs to the family of tyrosine kinases with an ability to initiate the inflammatory responses, by connecting immune cell receptors to intracellular signaling pathways.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a molecule type that silences the gene and limits the transcription of the mutated gene. Gene silencing is a novel mechanism that inactivates the transcripts of mutated gene, by activating sequence specific RNA degradation process.
p53 is the tumor suppressor transcription factor that activates to various stimulus, including uncontrolled cell proliferation, oncogene over-expression, and DNA damage. p53 antigen modulators helps in preventing cancer development through regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.
Cyclophilin befits in the group of protein that shows peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, found in all types of cells. In humans, 16 cyclophilins have been identified till date. Cyclophilin A, a member of cyclophilin group, mediate the action of immunosuppressive drugs.
Cell cycle inhibitors include cyclin inhibitors and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which plays major role in developing new class of anti-cancer therapies. Also, cell cycle inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy, overcome drug resistance and improve cytotoxic efficacy. CDKs are rational targets for cancer treatment, that could restore cell-cycle checkpoints and may induce apoptosis.
Cathepsin K is a protease enzyme which is coded by CTSK gene. The function associated with the gene involves bone remodelling and resorption. Cathepsin K is a member of peptidase C1 protein family and expressed mainly in osteoclasts.
Adenosine 5-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Dysregulation of AMPK can result in many diseases which includes obesity and type 2 diabetes. Several studies have also suggested that AMPK are also associated with the development of neurological diseases and cancer.
Androgens are responsible for the development of male characteristics by binding to androgen receptors. Androgen receptor plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Thus, it has been an attractive target for the clinical interventions and treatment of prostate cancer.
Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is abundantly found in the brain. The minimal amount of alpha-synuclein is also found in the heart and other tissues. The protein is prominently found at the tips of the nerve cells. It helps in the maintaining supply of the synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals. In addition, the alpha-synuclein protein also helps in release of dopamine.
Trypanosomiasis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite of the genus Trypanosoma. African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei parasites in sub-Saharan Africa and American trypanosomiasis, or Chagas disease, is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi parasites in Latin America and is transmitted by the triatomine or ‘kissing’ bug.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw is a bacterial disease caused by Clostridium tetani. The bacteria are usually found in dust, soil, and manure and enter the body through breaks in the skin. The spores develop into bacteria when they enter the body.
Streptococcal infections are caused by any one of several species of Streptococcus. These infections can spread through coughing or sneezing, contact with infected wounds or sores, or during a vaginal delivery.
Shigella infection, also known as shigellosis, is a bacterial infection caused by a family of bacteria known as shigella. The main symptom of this infection is diarrhea, and can be passed through direct contact with the bacteria in the stool.
Sepsis refers to inflammation throughout the body, as a result of immune response to fight an infection. Severe cases of sepsis can lead to septic shock.
Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic disease caused by parasitic worms of the genus Schistosoma, during routine domestic, occupational, agricultural, and recreational activities, which involves infested water exposure.
Plague is an enzootic vector borne disease and a type of infectious disease, that is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This bacterium is generally found in the flea that affects human and other mammals.
Mycoses, also known as fungal infections are categorized into different types based on their invasiveness. The different types of mycoses are superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, dimorphic systemic, and opportunistic systemic mycoses.
Mumps is a transmissible disease caused by the mumps virus and is characterized by swelling of glands in neck and face. Some of the symptoms of this disease are headache, fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, and muscle ache.
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Coronaviruses are a type of viruses that affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. Human coronaviruses usually cause mild to moderate cold-like illnesses.
Klebsiella infections include different types of infections like bloodstream infections; pneumonia; wound or surgical site infections; and meningitis, caused by the Klebsiella bacteria.
Impetigo is a common bacterial infection caused by different kinds of bacteria, including streptococcus and staphylococcus. It is a contagious disease and begins with appearance of red sores on any part of the body, which eventually changes to blisters on the body.
Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a lung infection that occurs during hospital stay. HAP can spread via health care workers, who may pass germs from their hands or clothes from one patient to another. This is why hand-washing, wearing gowns, and using other safety measures is so important in hospitals and other healthcare settings.
Herpes labialis, also known as oral herpes, is a mouth infection which leads to the development of small, painful blisters on gums, throat, and lips. The blisters are caused by herpes simplex virus, which is highly contagious and is known to infect a larger portion of population in the U.S.
Haemophilus infections are the bacterial infections including septic arthritis, meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, tracheobronchitis, and acute epiglottitis caused by the Haemophilus sp.
Gram-positive bacterial infections are caused by gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. This infection sometimes become fatal in the immune-compromised person, and it is generally found in new-born.
Diphtheria is an infectious and vaccine preventable disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, and the most common sites for this disease are pharynx and tonsils.
Cryptosporidiosis is a severe form of illness caused by parasites of various Cryptosporidium species. A person can be infected by parasites by having contaminated food and water or coming in contact with contaminated places.
Community acquired pneumonia is a type of pneumonia acquired in extended care facilities. This condition can cause decreased lung function, fever, chest pain, dyspnea, and cough.
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Chagas disease occurs principally in the continental part of Latin America, and not in the Caribbean isles.
Blepharitis is an inflammatory disorder of eyelids and can be categorized into two types; anterior and posterior blepharitis. The inflammation at the outside front of the eyelid is anterior blepharitis, whereas, inflammation at the inner eyelid is posterior blepharitis.
Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of inner lining of the valves and heart chamber. This infection can cause serious inflammation in heart and can develop fatal complications