Hemochromatosis, also known as iron overload, is characterized by iron accumulation in human body. Some of the major symptoms of hemochromatosis/iron overload include weight loss, joint pain, erectile dysfunction in men, and irregular menstrual cycle in women.
Galectins belong to the family of animal lectins and perform function by interacting with cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, cell-surface and extracellular matrix glycoproteins and glycolipids to modulate signalling pathways.
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are a group of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a major role in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. In most of the cancer, EGFR are amplified and overexpressed, due to dysregulation, resulting in cancer development.
Endothelin antagonists are drug candidates that acts against endothelin receptors and generate pharmacological actions such as blocking the vasoconstriction and mediate vasodilatation. Endothelin-1 is a peptide which is comprised of 21 amino acids and formed by vascular endothelium.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are ubiquitous regulators of many cellular functions including cell proliferation, cellular growth, inflammatory responses to stress signals and cell differentiation.
MDM2 protein are powerful oncogene which is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast cancer and sarcoma. There are many small molecule drug candidates that are being developed as MDM2 protein inhibitors as monotherapy or combination therapy for the treatment of various cancers.
Interleukin receptors are a group of cytokine receptors that are expressed by leukocytes. Interleukin receptors play an important role in the functioning of the immune system.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a protein that belongs to the family of tyrosine kinases with an ability to initiate the inflammatory responses, by connecting immune cell receptors to intracellular signaling pathways.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a molecule type that silences the gene and limits the transcription of the mutated gene. Gene silencing is a novel mechanism that inactivates the transcripts of mutated gene, by activating sequence specific RNA degradation process.
Cyclophilin befits in the group of protein that shows peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, found in all types of cells. In humans, 16 cyclophilins have been identified till date. Cyclophilin A, a member of cyclophilin group, mediate the action of immunosuppressive drugs.
Cell cycle inhibitors include cyclin inhibitors and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which plays major role in developing new class of anti-cancer therapies. Also, cell cycle inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy, overcome drug resistance and improve cytotoxic efficacy. CDKs are rational targets for cancer treatment, that could restore cell-cycle checkpoints and may induce apoptosis.
Aurora kinase are proteins that function as mitotic regulators and are aberrantly expressed in cancerous cells. Aurora kinase inhibitors target these aberrantly expressed regulators, provides genetic stability and prevents tumorigenesis.
Angiopoietin (ANG) receptor plays a crucial role in regulation of vascular permeability and pathological vascular remodelling during tumour angiogenesis, metastasis and inflammation. Thus, it has emerged as a new clinical approach for the development of therapeutics which treat cancer and ophthalmological diseases.
Adenosine 5-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Dysregulation of AMPK can result in many diseases which includes obesity and type 2 diabetes. Several studies have also suggested that AMPK are also associated with the development of neurological diseases and cancer.
Androgens are responsible for the development of male characteristics by binding to androgen receptors. Androgen receptor plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Thus, it has been an attractive target for the clinical interventions and treatment of prostate cancer.
Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is abundantly found in the brain. The minimal amount of alpha-synuclein is also found in the heart and other tissues. The protein is prominently found at the tips of the nerve cells. It helps in the maintaining supply of the synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals. In addition, the alpha-synuclein protein also helps in release of dopamine.
Septicemia, also known as bacteremia or blood poisoning, is characterized by bacterial blood infection. Septicemia occurs as a result of bacterial infection elsewhere in the body, which enters in the bloodstream.
Porphyria is a group of disorders including cutaneous porphyria and acute porphyria. Cutaneous porphyria affects the skin while acute porphyria affects the nervous system. Porphyria cutanea tarda is the most common type of porphyria prevalent in the U.S.
Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia, which is a result of decreased level of haemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs). There are several causes for iron deficiency anemia, such as inadequate iron intake, pregnancy or blood loss due to menstruation, internal bleeding, and body’s inability to absorb iron.
Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a group of rare blood disorders which is characterized by increased number of eosinophils. These eosinophils make their way into various tissues, causing inflammation and eventually organ dysfunction. The most commonly involved organs in hypereosinophilic syndrome include heart, lung, skin and nervous system.
Hemorrhagic shock, also known as hypovolemic shock, is characterized by loss of more than 20% of the blood or body fluids. This leads to improper blood supply to the body which results in the organ failure. Some of the major causes of hypovolemic shock are internal bleeding, vaginal bleeding, bleeding from accidental injuries, severe burns, excessive sweating and vomiting, and excessive diarrhea.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a medical condition in which the human body develops large number of activated immune cells, known as macrophages and lymphocytes. Person suffering from HLH usually develop symptoms within the first month or year of life.
Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease, caused by mutations in FA genes. These genes provide instructions to repair certain types of DNA damage in the human body. The cells of healthy people often repair DNA damage; however, cells affected by Fanconi anemia are not able to repair damages.
Fibrinogen deficiency, also known as factor I deficiency, is an inherited bleeding disorder which prevent blood clot formation in the human body. Hypofibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia, dysfibrinogenemia and hypodysfibrinogenemia are most commonly occurring fibrinogen deficiency disorders. The symptoms of this deficiency vary based on the type of disorder.
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), also known as non-diarrhea - associated hemolytic uremic syndrome, is a rare disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, acute kidney failure and uremia. The signs and symptoms of aHUS include formation of tiny blood clots in various small blood vessels of the body.