COPD is a broad term used for progression of various diseases affecting the lungs such as, chronic bronchitis, some forms of bronchiectasis, emphysema and refractory (non-reversible) asthma.
NF-κB is identified as a family of highly conserved transcription factors, which are responsible for many cellular functions such as regulation of inflammatory responses, apoptosis, cellular growth, and others.
Bronchiectasis affects lungs, and leads to excess accumulation of mucus due to thickening and widening of alveolar walls. Some of the most common symptoms of bronchiectasis are breathlessness, mucus coughing, tiredness, fever, chills, and wheezing sound on breathing.
Mitochondria (singular: mitochondrion) are cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotic cells, such as plants, animals, fungi, and protists. The number of mitochondria present in a eukaryotic cell depend on the metabolic requirements of that cell; and ranges from a single large mitochondrion to thousands of the organelles.
Wnt or β-Catenin signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of pluripotent cells and embryonic development. The pathway regulates cell-to-cell interaction, activates blastocyst, accelerates trophoblast development, accelerate chorion-allantois fusion and implantation.
Galectins belong to the family of animal lectins and perform function by interacting with cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, cell-surface and extracellular matrix glycoproteins and glycolipids to modulate signalling pathways.
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are a group of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a major role in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. In most of the cancer, EGFR are amplified and overexpressed, due to dysregulation, resulting in cancer development.
Endothelin antagonists are drug candidates that acts against endothelin receptors and generate pharmacological actions such as blocking the vasoconstriction and mediate vasodilatation. Endothelin-1 is a peptide which is comprised of 21 amino acids and formed by vascular endothelium.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are ubiquitous regulators of many cellular functions including cell proliferation, cellular growth, inflammatory responses to stress signals and cell differentiation.
Interleukin receptors are a group of cytokine receptors that are expressed by leukocytes. Interleukin receptors play an important role in the functioning of the immune system.
Interleukin 8 is a chemokine produced by various immune cells. They promote angiogenesis, proliferation and development of cancerous cells. The other diseases which are associated with interleukin 8 are depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, psoriasis, eczema and others.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is secreted by human pancreatic stellate cells and present predominantly on cancer cells. Thus, HGF inhibitors has emerged as an effective therapy in preventing local tumor growth.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a protein that belongs to the family of tyrosine kinases with an ability to initiate the inflammatory responses, by connecting immune cell receptors to intracellular signaling pathways.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a molecule type that silences the gene and limits the transcription of the mutated gene. Gene silencing is a novel mechanism that inactivates the transcripts of mutated gene, by activating sequence specific RNA degradation process.
Rho kinase inhibitor, also known as ROCK inhibitor, inhibits the rho kinases, a family of small GTP-binding protein. Rho kinases are found to regulate cell motility, proliferation, shape, gene expression, apoptosis, and are also involved in the signalling pathway.
p53 is the tumor suppressor transcription factor that activates to various stimulus, including uncontrolled cell proliferation, oncogene over-expression, and DNA damage. p53 antigen modulators helps in preventing cancer development through regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.
Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitors are the drug candidates that target the sodium channels Nav1.7 and have been significant in pain management. The sodium channels Nav1.7 receptors are generally found in two types of neurons: nociceptive pain neurons, such as trigeminal neurons and dorsal root ganglion; and sympathetic ganglion neurons which form a part of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. These receptors play an important role in generation and conduction of action potential.
Cyclophilin befits in the group of protein that shows peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, found in all types of cells. In humans, 16 cyclophilins have been identified till date. Cyclophilin A, a member of cyclophilin group, mediate the action of immunosuppressive drugs.
Cell cycle inhibitors include cyclin inhibitors and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which plays major role in developing new class of anti-cancer therapies. Also, cell cycle inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy, overcome drug resistance and improve cytotoxic efficacy. CDKs are rational targets for cancer treatment, that could restore cell-cycle checkpoints and may induce apoptosis.
Angiopoietin (ANG) receptor plays a crucial role in regulation of vascular permeability and pathological vascular remodelling during tumour angiogenesis, metastasis and inflammation. Thus, it has emerged as a new clinical approach for the development of therapeutics which treat cancer and ophthalmological diseases.
Androgens are responsible for the development of male characteristics by binding to androgen receptors. Androgen receptor plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Thus, it has been an attractive target for the clinical interventions and treatment of prostate cancer.
Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is abundantly found in the brain. The minimal amount of alpha-synuclein is also found in the heart and other tissues. The protein is prominently found at the tips of the nerve cells. It helps in the maintaining supply of the synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals. In addition, the alpha-synuclein protein also helps in release of dopamine.
Viral bronchiolitis is an inflammatory disorder which is characterized by obstruction of small airways, necrosis and edema of the epithelial cells, and increased mucus production. The disease is most commonly caused by an infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus.
Pleural effusion is the fluid build-up in the pleural space and is categorized into two types which includes exudate and transudate. Transudate is usually composed of ultra-filtrates of plasma due to heart failure or cirrhosis; while, exudate is caused by inflammatory conditions.
Interstitial lung disease is a type of inflammatory disease that affects and thickens the interstitium of the lungs. The interstitium is a lace like network of the tissue that provide support to the air sacs and the capillaries in the interstitium which allows the gas exchange between the blood and alveolar tissues.