Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) can be identified as a range of genetic ophthalmic disorders that lead to breakdown and loss of cells in the retina. The disease is caused by mutation in genes, which encode for proteins required by cells within the retina.
Presbyopia is an ophthalmic disorder, which develops with age, and affects the visual ability to see near objects clearly. Lens behind the iris helps in focusing on near as well as far objects by adjusting its shape. With the progressing age, the lens loses its flexibility, and becomes rigid.
Uveitis can be identified as a range of inflammatory conditions causing pain in the middle layer of the eye, uvea. However, it is not limited to uvea, but also affects retina, lens, optic nerve, and vitreous humor. Due to this disorder, eyes appear red and swollen.
Mitochondria (singular: mitochondrion) are cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotic cells, such as plants, animals, fungi, and protists. The number of mitochondria present in a eukaryotic cell depend on the metabolic requirements of that cell; and ranges from a single large mitochondrion to thousands of the organelles.
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are a group of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a major role in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. In most of the cancer, EGFR are amplified and overexpressed, due to dysregulation, resulting in cancer development.
Endothelin antagonists are drug candidates that acts against endothelin receptors and generate pharmacological actions such as blocking the vasoconstriction and mediate vasodilatation. Endothelin-1 is a peptide which is comprised of 21 amino acids and formed by vascular endothelium.
Interleukin receptors are a group of cytokine receptors that are expressed by leukocytes. Interleukin receptors play an important role in the functioning of the immune system.
Interleukin 8 is a chemokine produced by various immune cells. They promote angiogenesis, proliferation and development of cancerous cells. The other diseases which are associated with interleukin 8 are depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, psoriasis, eczema and others.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a protein that belongs to the family of tyrosine kinases with an ability to initiate the inflammatory responses, by connecting immune cell receptors to intracellular signaling pathways.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a molecule type that silences the gene and limits the transcription of the mutated gene. Gene silencing is a novel mechanism that inactivates the transcripts of mutated gene, by activating sequence specific RNA degradation process.
Rho kinase inhibitor, also known as ROCK inhibitor, inhibits the rho kinases, a family of small GTP-binding protein. Rho kinases are found to regulate cell motility, proliferation, shape, gene expression, apoptosis, and are also involved in the signalling pathway.
p53 is the tumor suppressor transcription factor that activates to various stimulus, including uncontrolled cell proliferation, oncogene over-expression, and DNA damage. p53 antigen modulators helps in preventing cancer development through regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.
Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitors are the drug candidates that target the sodium channels Nav1.7 and have been significant in pain management. The sodium channels Nav1.7 receptors are generally found in two types of neurons: nociceptive pain neurons, such as trigeminal neurons and dorsal root ganglion; and sympathetic ganglion neurons which form a part of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. These receptors play an important role in generation and conduction of action potential.
Cell cycle inhibitors include cyclin inhibitors and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which plays major role in developing new class of anti-cancer therapies. Also, cell cycle inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy, overcome drug resistance and improve cytotoxic efficacy. CDKs are rational targets for cancer treatment, that could restore cell-cycle checkpoints and may induce apoptosis.
Aurora kinase are proteins that function as mitotic regulators and are aberrantly expressed in cancerous cells. Aurora kinase inhibitors target these aberrantly expressed regulators, provides genetic stability and prevents tumorigenesis.
Angiopoietin (ANG) receptor plays a crucial role in regulation of vascular permeability and pathological vascular remodelling during tumour angiogenesis, metastasis and inflammation. Thus, it has emerged as a new clinical approach for the development of therapeutics which treat cancer and ophthalmological diseases.
Androgens are responsible for the development of male characteristics by binding to androgen receptors. Androgen receptor plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Thus, it has been an attractive target for the clinical interventions and treatment of prostate cancer.
Glaucoma can be described as a group of diseases characterized by cupping of the optic nerve head and visual-field damage. These diseases differ from each other in terms of their causes, risk factors, demographics, symptoms, duration, treatment, and prognosis.
Glaucoma refers to a group of diseases that tend to damage the optic nerve, resulting in vision loss and blindness. It is usually caused due to fluid building up in the anterior part of the eye, which increases pressure inside the eye. It can affect people of all ages but is most common in adults aged between 70 to 80 years. If not treated, people with glaucoma slowly lose their peripheral vision and miss objects to the side and out of the corner of their eye. Over time, straight-ahead vision may decrease until no vision remains.
Akt, also known as PKB, is generally activated in several types of cancers such as breast, gastric, lung, ovary, and pancreatic cancer. Akt inhibitor prevent the functioning of activated form of Akt kinases. Akt kinases are also involved in promoting growth factor-mediated cells that mediates cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis through the inactivation of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death.
Graves’ ophthalmopathy (also called Graves’ orbitopathy; thyroid eye disease (TED); dysthyroid/thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO)) is an autoimmune disorder wherein ocular and orbital tissues are affected by the overproduction of thyroid hormones.
Choroidal neovascularization is a type of medical condition in which new blood vessels are formed from choroid and extend into the subretinal space, or subretinal pigment epithelium, or a combination of both. The disease can be symptomatized by a painless loss of vision, paracentral or central scotoma, and metamorphopsia.